February 2022

Previous studies have found that use of hexaminolevulinate (HAL) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) during treatment of bladder cancer had a positive impact on overall survival after later cystectomy, indicating a potential treatment effect beyond improved diagnostic accuracy. The aim of our study was to determine whether HAL and BL mimicking clinically relevant doses in an orthotopic rat model could have therapeutic effect by inducing modulation of a tumor-specific immune response. We also assessed whether administration with a checkpoint inhibitor